Functional Anatomy of Testes refers to the study of the  anatomy of testes in relation to the functions of the primary sex organs called testes.


Testes are the primary sex organs or gonads in males. There are two testes in almost all the species. In human beings, both the testes are ovoid or walnut-bodies  that are located  and suspended  in a sac-like structure called  scrotum. Each testis  weighs about 15 to 19g  and measures about 5 × 3cm. Testis is made up of about 900 coiled tubules known as  seminiferous tubules,  which  produce sperms. Seminiferous  tubules continue as the vas efferens, which form the  epididymis.  It is continued as vas deferens.


Each testis is enclosed by three coverings.

  1. Tunica Vasculosa Tunica vasculosa is  the innermost covering. It  is made up of connective tissue and it is rich in blood vessels
  2. Tunica Albuginea Tunica  albuginea  is the middle  covering.  It is a dense f ibrous capsule
  3. Tunica Vaginalis Tunica  vaginalis  is the outermost closed  cleft like covering, formed by  mesothelial cells.  It is formed  by visceral and parietal layers, which glide on one another and allow  free movement of testes. Visceral layer of tunica vaginalis adheres to tunica albuginea  and the parietal layer lines the inner surface of the scrotum.


Lobules of Testis

Tunica  albuginea  on the posterior  surface of testis is thickened  to form the  mediastinum testis. From this, the connective tissue septa called  septula testis  radiate into testis and bind with tunica albuginea  at various points. Because of this, testis  is  divided into a number of  pyramidal lobules,  with bases directed towards the periphery and the apices towards the mediastinum.

Rete Testis:

Rete testis is a network of thin-walled  channels  present in mediastinum.  All the seminiferous tubules  open  into the rete testis.

Vas Efferens:

From rete testis,  8 to 15 tubules called vas efferens arise. Vas efferens join together and form  the  head of epididymis  and  then  converge  to form the duct of epididymis.

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